Evolution pathways of IgE responses to grass and mite allergens throughout childhood

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Abstract

Background:

Little is known about longitudinal patterns of the development of IgE to distinct allergen components.

Objective:

We sought to investigate the evolution of IgE responses to allergenic components of timothy grass and dust mite during childhood.

Methods:

In a population-based birth cohort (n = 1184) we measured IgE responses to 15 components from timothy grass and dust mite in children with available samples at 3 time points (ages 5, 8, and 11 years; n = 235). We designed a nested, 2-stage latent class analysis to identify cross-sectional sensitization patterns at each follow-up and their longitudinal trajectories. We then ascertained the association of longitudinal trajectories with asthma, rhinitis, eczema, and lung function in children with component data for at least 2 time points (n = 534).

Results:

Longitudinal latent class analysis revealed 3 grass sensitization trajectories: (1) no/low sensitization; (2) early onset; and (3) late onset. The early-onset trajectory was associated with asthma and diminished lung function, and the late-onset trajectory was associated with rhinitis. Four longitudinal trajectories emerged for mite: (1) no/low sensitization; (2) group 1 allergens; (3) group 2 allergens; and (3) complete mite sensitization. Children in the complete mite sensitization trajectory had the highest odds ratios (ORs) for asthma (OR, 7.15; 95% CI, 3.80–13.44) and were the only group significantly associated with comorbid asthma, rhinitis, and eczema (OR, 5.91; 95% CI, 2.01–17.37). Among children with wheezing, those in the complete mite sensitization trajectory (but not other longitudinal mite trajectories) had significantly higher risk of severe exacerbations (OR, 3.39; 95% CI, 1.62–6.67).

Conclusions:

The nature of developmental longitudinal trajectories of IgE responses differed between grass and mite allergen components, with temporal differences (early vs late onset) dominant in grass and diverging patterns of IgE responses (group 1 allergens, group 2 allergens, or both) in mite. Different longitudinal patterns bear different associations with clinical outcomes, which varied by allergen.

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