Clinical and immunologic phenotype associated with activated phosphoinositide 3-kinase δ syndrome 2: A cohort study

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Abstract

Background:

Activated phosphoinositide 3-kinase δ syndrome (APDS) 2 (p110δ-activating mutations causing senescent T cells, lymphadenopathy, and immunodeficiency [PASLI]–R1), a recently described primary immunodeficiency, results from autosomal dominant mutations inPIK3R1, the gene encoding the regulatory subunit (p85α, p55α, and p50α) of class IA phosphoinositide 3-kinases.

Objectives:

We sought to review the clinical, immunologic, and histopathologic phenotypes of APDS2 in a genetically defined international patient cohort.

Methods:

The medical and biological records of 36 patients with genetically diagnosed APDS2 were collected and reviewed.

Results:

Mutations within splice acceptor and donor sites of exon 11 of thePIK3R1gene lead to APDS2. Recurrent upper respiratory tract infections (100%), pneumonitis (71%), and chronic lymphoproliferation (89%, including adenopathy [75%], splenomegaly [43%], and upper respiratory tract lymphoid hyperplasia [48%]) were the most common features. Growth retardation was frequently noticed (45%). Other complications were mild neurodevelopmental delay (31%); malignant diseases (28%), most of them being B-cell lymphomas; autoimmunity (17%); bronchiectasis (18%); and chronic diarrhea (24%). Decreased serum IgA and IgG levels (87%), increased IgM levels (58%), B-cell lymphopenia (88%) associated with an increased frequency of transitional B cells (93%), and decreased numbers of naive CD4 and naive CD8 cells but increased numbers of CD8 effector/memory T cells were predominant immunologic features. The majority of patients (89%) received immunoglobulin replacement; 3 patients were treated with rituximab, and 6 were treated with rapamycin initiated after diagnosis of APDS2. Five patients died from APDS2-related complications.

Conclusion:

APDS2 is a combined immunodeficiency with a variable clinical phenotype. Complications are frequent, such as severe bacterial and viral infections, lymphoproliferation, and lymphoma similar to APDS1/PASLI-CD. Immunoglobulin replacement therapy, rapamycin, and, likely in the near future, selective phosphoinositide 3-kinase δ inhibitors are possible treatment options.

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