The year 2015 saw a significant number of advances in allergen immunotherapy (AIT), and several of these are reviewed in this report. Although AIT has been used for more than 100 years, investigations into optimal treatment approaches and mechanisms are ongoing. Among the highlights was a report by an international group of experts who reviewed AIT guidelines from the major specialty societies and addressed potential unmet needs. Herein, advances in the effectiveness, safety, and mechanisms of sublingual and oral immunotherapy are reviewed. Development of hypoallergenic vaccines to enhance safety, newer routes and regimens to improve efficacy, and biomarkers to monitor immunotherapy are also discussed.