To date, no study has evaluated the diversity of TH cell cytokine patterns of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) among centers in different continents using identical methods.Objective:
We sought to assess TH cytokine profiles in patients with CRS from Europe, Asia, and Australia.Methods:
Patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) and without nasal polyps (CRSsNP; n = 435) and control subjects (n = 138) were recruited from centers in Adelaide, Benelux, Berlin, Beijing, Chengdu, and Tochigi. Nasal mucosal concentrations of TH2, TH17, and TH1 cytokines; eosinophilic cationic protein (ECP); myeloperoxidase (MPO); IL-8; and tissue total andStaphylococcus aureusenterotoxin (SE)–specific IgE were measured by using identical tools.Results:
Combinations of TH1/TH2/TH17 cytokine profiles in patients with CRSwNP varied considerably between regions. CRSwNP tissues from patients from Benelux, Berlin, Adelaide, and Tochigi were TH2 biased, whereas those from Beijing mainly demonstrated TH2/TH1/TH17 mixed patterns, and patients from Chengdu showed an even lower TH2 expression. Concentrations of IL-8 and tissue total IgE in patients with CRSwNP were significantly higher than those in control subjects in all regions. More than 50% of patients with CRSwNP in Benelux, Berlin, Adelaide, and Tochigi showed a predominantly eosinophilic endotype compared with less than 30% of patients in Beijing and Chengdu. SE-specific IgE was found in significantly greater numbers in patients with CRSwNP from Benelux, Adelaide, and Tochigi and significantly lower numbers in patients from Beijing and Chengdu. Moreover, the TH1/TH2/TH17 cytokine profiles in patients with CRSsNP showed diversity among the 6 regions.Conclusion:
TH cytokine levels, eosinophilic/neutrophilic patterns, and SE-specific IgE expressions show extreme diversity among patients with CRS from Europe, Asia, and Oceania.