Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is characterized by severely impaired T-cell development and is fatal without treatment. Newborn screening (NBS) for SCID permits identification of affected infants before development of opportunistic infections and other complications. Substantial variation exists between treatment centers with regard to pretransplantation care, and transplantation protocols for NBS identified infants with SCID, as well as infants with other T-lymphopenic disorders detected by using NBS. We developed approaches to management based on the study of infants identified by means of NBS for SCID who received care at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF). From August 2010 through October 2016, 32 patients with NBS-identified SCID and leaky SCID from California and other states were treated, and 42 patients with NBS-identified non-SCID T-cell lymphopenia were followed. Our center's approach supports successful outcomes; systematic review of our practice provides a framework for diagnosis and management, recognizing that more data will continue to shape best practices.