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Eczema (atopic dermatitis) is associated with an increased risk of having IgE antibodies. IgE sensitization can occur through an impaired skin barrier. Filaggrin gene(FLG)mutation is associated with eczema and possibly also with IgE sensitization.We sought to explore the longitudinal relation between preschool eczema (PSE),FLGmutation, or both and IgE sensitization in childhood.A total of 3201 children from the BAMSE (Children Allergy Milieu Stockholm Epidemiology) birth cohort recruited from the general population were included. Regular parental questionnaires identified children with eczema. Blood samples were collected at 4, 8, and 16 years of age for analysis of specific IgE.FLGmutation analysis was performed on 1890 of the children.PSE was associated with IgE sensitization to both food allergens and aeroallergens up to age 16 years (overall adjusted odds ratio, 2.30; 95% CI, 2.00–2.66). This association was even stronger among children with persistent PSE.FLGmutation was associated with IgE sensitization to peanut at age 4 years (adjusted odds ratio, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.03–3.44) but not to other allergens up to age 16 years.FLGmutation and PSE were not effect modifiers for the association between IgE sensitization and PSE orFLGmutation, respectively. Sensitized children with PSE were characterized by means of polysensitization, but no other specific IgE sensitization patterns were found.PSE is associated with IgE sensitization to both food allergens and aeroallergens up to 16 years of age.FLGmutation is associated with IgE sensitization to peanut but not to other allergens. Sensitized children with preceding PSE are more often polysensitized.