Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) have been observed in the airway in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but their clinical and pathophysiologic implications have not been defined.Objective:
We sought to determine whether NETs are associated with disease severity in patients with COPD and how they are associated with microbiota composition and airway neutrophil function.Methods:
NET protein complexes (DNA-elastase and histone-elastase complexes), cell-free DNA, and neutrophil biomarkers were quantified in soluble sputum and serum from patients with COPD during periods of disease stability and during exacerbations and compared with clinical measures of disease severity and the sputum microbiome. Peripheral blood and airway neutrophil function were evaluated by means of flow cytometryex vivoand experimentally after stimulation of NET formation.Results:
Sputum NET complexes were associated with the severity of COPD evaluated by using the composite Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease scale (P< .0001). This relationship was due to modest correlations between NET complexes and FEV1, symptoms evaluated by using the COPD assessment test, and higher levels of NET complexes in patients with frequent exacerbations (P= .002). Microbiota composition was heterogeneous, but there was a correlation between NET complexes and both microbiota diversity (P= .009) and dominance ofHaemophilusspecies operational taxonomic units (P= .01).Ex vivoairway neutrophil phagocytosis of bacteria was reduced in patients with increased sputum NET complexes. Consistent results were observed regardless of the method of quantifying sputum NETs. Failure of phagocytosis could be induced experimentally by incubating healthy control neutrophils with soluble sputum from patients with COPD.Conclusion:
NET formation is increased in patients with severe COPD and associated with more frequent exacerbations and a loss of microbiota diversity.