Fibrinogen cleavage products and Toll-like receptor 4 promote the generation of programmed cell death 1 ligand 2–positive dendritic cells in allergic asthma

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Background:Inhaled protease allergens preferentially trigger TH2-mediated inflammation in allergic asthma. The role of dendritic cells (DCs) on induction of TH2 cell responses in allergic asthma has been well documented; however, the mechanism by which protease allergens induce TH2-favorable DCs in the airway remains unclear.Objective:We sought to determine a subset of DCs responsible for TH2 cell responses in allergic asthma and the mechanism by which protease allergens induce the DC subset in the airway.Methods:Mice were challenged intranasally with protease allergens or fibrinogen cleavage products (FCPs) to induce allergic airway inflammation. DCs isolated from mediastinal lymph nodes were analyzed for surface phenotype and T-cell stimulatory function. Anti-Thy1.2 and Mas-TRECK mice were used to deplete innate lymphoid cells and mast cells, respectively. Adoptive cell transfer, bone marrow DC culture, anti–IL-13, and Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4–deficient mice were used for further mechanistic studies.Results:Protease allergens induced a remarkable accumulation of TH2-favorable programmed cell death 1 ligand 2 (PD-L2)+ DCs in mediastinal lymph nodes, which was significantly abolished in mice depleted of mast cells and, to a lesser extent, innate lymphoid cells. Mechanistically, FCPs generated by protease allergens triggered IL-13 production from wild-type mast cells but not from TLR4-deficient mast cells, which resulted in an increase in the number of PD-L2+ DCs. Intranasal administration of FCPs induced an increase in numbers of PD-L2+ DCs in the airway, which was significantly abolished in TLR4- and mast cell–deficient mice. Injection of IL-13 restored the PD-L2+ DC population in mice lacking mast cells.Conclusion:Our findings unveil the “protease–FCP–TLR4–mast cell–IL-13” axis as a molecular mechanism for generation of TH2-favorable PD-L2+ DCs in allergic asthma and suggest that targeting the PD-L2+ DC pathway might be effective in suppressing allergic T-cell responses in the airway.Graphical abstract:

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