Moving GPU-OpenCL-based Monte Carlo dose calculation toward clinical use: Automatic beam commissioning and source sampling for treatment plan dose calculation

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We have previously developed a GPU-based Monte Carlo (MC) dose engine on the OpenCL platform, named goMC, with a built-in analytical linear accelerator (linac) beam model. In this paper, we report our recent improvement on goMC to move it toward clinical use. First, we have adapted a previously developed automatic beam commissioning approach to our beam model. The commissioning was conducted through an optimization process, minimizing the discrepancies between calculated dose and measurement. We successfully commissioned six beam models built for Varian TrueBeam linac photon beams, including four beams of different energies (6 MV, 10 MV, 15 MV, and 18 MV) and two flattening-filter-free (FFF) beams of 6 MV and 10 MV. Second, to facilitate the use of goMC for treatment plan dose calculations, we have developed an efficient source particle sampling strategy. It uses the pre-generated fluence maps (FMs) to bias the sampling of the control point for source particles already sampled from our beam model. It could effectively reduce the number of source particles required to reach a statistical uncertainty level in the calculated dose, as compared to the conventional FM weighting method. For a head-and-neck patient treated with volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), a reduction factor of ˜2.8 was achieved, accelerating dose calculation from 150.9 s to 51.5 s. The overall accuracy of goMC was investigated on a VMAT prostate patient case treated with 10 MV FFF beam. 3D gamma index test was conducted to evaluate the discrepancy between our calculated dose and the dose calculated in Varian Eclipse treatment planning system. The passing rate was 99.82% for 2%/2 mm criterion and 95.71% for 1%/1 mm criterion. Our studies have demonstrated the effectiveness and feasibility of our auto-commissioning approach and new source sampling strategy for fast and accurate MC dose calculations for treatment plans.

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