Dosimetric validation of a magnetic resonance image gated radiotherapy system using a motion phantom and radiochromic film

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Magnetic resonance image (MRI) guided radiotherapy enables gating directly on the target position. We present an evaluation of an MRI-guided radiotherapy system's gating performance using an MRI-compatible respiratory motion phantom and radiochromic film. Our evaluation is geared toward validation of our institution's clinical gating protocol which involves planning to a target volume formed by expanding 5 mm about the gross tumor volume (GTV) and gating based on a 3 mm window about the GTV.


The motion phantom consisted of a target rod containing high-contrast target inserts which moved in the superior-inferior direction inside a body structure containing background contrast material. The target rod was equipped with a radiochromic film insert. Treatment plans were generated for a 3 cm diameter spherical planning target volume, and delivered to the phantom at rest and in motion with and without gating. Both sinusoidal trajectories and tumor trajectories measured during MRI-guided treatments were used. Similarity of the gated dose distribution to the planned, motion-frozen, distribution was quantified using the gamma technique.


Without gating, gamma pass rates using 4%/3 mm criteria were 22–59% depending on motion trajectory. Using our clinical standard of repeated breath holds and a gating window of 3 mm with 10% target allowed outside the gating boundary, the gamma pass rate was 97.8% with 3%/3 mm gamma criteria. Using a 3 mm window and 10% allowed excursion, all of the patient tumor motion trajectories at actual speed resulting in at least 95% gamma pass rate at 4%/3 mm.


Our results suggest that the device can be used to compensate respiratory motion using a 3 mm gating margin and 10% allowed excursion results in conjunction with repeated breath holds. Full clinical validation requires a comprehensive evaluation of tracking performance in actual patient images, outside the scope of this study.

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