Effect of Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus Vaccination on Oral Squamous Cell Papillomas

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Abstract

Importance

Cutaneous verruca vulgaris lesions (warts) and oral squamous cell papillomas are common lesions caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). Multiple reports have described cases of wart resolution following quadrivalent HPV vaccination. We report the case of a patient with chronic oral papillomas with resolution after quadrivalent HPV vaccination and perform a review of the literature.

Observations

An immunocompetent man in his 60s presented with chronic verrucous papules on the lips, tongue, and buccal mucosa refractory to multiple excisions. Biopsy showed squamous cell papilloma, and DNA sequencing revealed HPV-32. He received the quadrivalent HPV vaccine resulting in clearance of all lesions after 3 months. We found 8 reported cases of disseminated, recurrent warts with resolution after quadrivalent HPV vaccination. Improvement was seen within 4 weeks of vaccination, and resolution after 3 to 8 months.

Conclusions and Relevance

We report the case of recurrent oral papillomas caused by HPV-32 with complete resolution after quadrivalent HPV vaccination and reviewed reports of resolution of recalcitrant and disseminated warts after vaccination. Production of cross-protective immunoglobulins and cytotoxic T cells is a possible mechanism. There remains a critical need for randomized clinical trials to assess efficacy of quadrivalent HPV vaccination for treatment of oral squamous papillomas and cutaneous verruca vulgaris.

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