The relationship between phenotypic variation among offspring and mother body mass in wild boar: evidence of coin-flipping?

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Abstract

This study provides the first evidence that ‘coin-flipping’ reproductive tactics occur in wild boars. The findings change the traditional view of mammalian reproductive tactics because the decoupling between phenotypic attributes and litter size and the high phenotypic variation among litter mates both suggest that developmental constraints of mammals could be less than generally assumed.

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