Inducible offences affect predator–prey interactions and life-history plasticity in both predators and prey

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Abstract

Trait changes in predator individuals, inducible offences, are well known examples of phenotypic plasticity, but less understood is how inducible offences affect predator-prey interactions. This study demostrates that inducible offences of predatory salamanders (Hynobius retardatus) have strong impacts on trophic interaction and predator and prey phenotypes across multiple life stages. Photo is a H. retardatus salsamander larva with offensive phenotype in a natural pond.

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