Unravelling the annual cycle in a migratory animal: breeding-season habitat loss drives population declines of monarch butterflies

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Abstract

Threats to migratory animals occur at multiple periods of the annual cycle that are separated by thousands of kilometers and span international borders. Using a year-round population model, we show that population declines of monarch butterflies result from loss of breeding habitats in the United States, not from loss of wintering habitats in Mexico.

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