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Studies that report outcomes after staged bilateral shoulder arthroplasty (BSA) are limited. This study compared the overall improvement between the first and second operated shoulders after BSA.Preoperative and postoperative motion and patient-reported outcomes for function, pain, and general health were assessed for patients who underwent BSA with a 2-year follow-up. Ultimate outcomes and the efficacy of treatment were compared between the first and second operated shoulders.Seventy-three patients met the inclusion criteria (mean follow-up, 51.4 months). There were no notable differences between the first and second operated shoulders for all preoperative and postoperative variables except for the preoperative 12-item Short-Form Physical Component Score, which was greater in the second shoulder (P = 0.005). The efficacy of treatment was not markedly different except for the Physical Component Score (P = 0.001) and forward elevation (P = 0.01), which were greater after the first surgery.Improvements in function, pain, and motion were not markedly different between the first and second shoulder arthroplasty surgeries.