Previous studies have shown that in vitro culture of human CD4+ T cells with antibodies to CD3 and CD28 immobilized on beads induced an antiviral effect to HIV-1 infection. Herein, we have used CD4+ T cells from nonhuman primates to address issues critical for use of such cells for therapy and immune reconstitution of humans and nonhuman primates infected with HIV and simian immunovirus (SIV). These studies include definition of the kinetics of the antiviral effect, the relative stability of the acquired phenotype, and whether such activated and expanded CD4+ T cells retain their immune function. Results of our studies show that antiviral effect is induced rapidly following activation with anti-CD3/CD28-coated beads. Additionally, the antiviral effect is not stable in these cells and requires continuous culture with anti-CD3/CD28 beads. Removal of CD4+ T cells from anti-CD3/CD28 stimulation renders these cells susceptible to infection, demonstrating that the resistant phenotype is not stable in these cultures. However, anti-CD3/CD28 expanded CD4+ T cells do retain immune function. Thus, although these findings imply a note of caution for therapeutic strategies aimed at providing patients with virus-resistant CD4+ T cells, the present study suggests that transfusion of such cells with retained immune function may have immune restoration capability.