|| Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid
Active tuberculosis (TB) screening outside clinics and in communities may reduce undiagnosed TB.To determine the yield of TB screening during community-based HIV testing campaigns (CHC) in 7 rural Ugandan communities within an ongoing cluster-randomized trial of universal HIV testing and treatment (SEARCH, NCT:01864603), we offered sputum microscopy to participants with prolonged cough (>2 weeks). We determined the number of persons needed to screen to identify one TB case, and the number of cases identified that linked to clinic and completed TB treatment.Of 36,785 adults enumerated in 7 communities, 27,214 (74%) attended CHCs, and HIV testing uptake was >99%, with 941 (3.5%) HIV-infected adults identified. Five thousand seven hundred eighty-six adults (21%) reported cough and 2876 (11%) reported cough >2 weeks. Staff obtained sputum in 1099/2876 (38%) participants with prolonged cough and identified 10 adults with AFB-positive sputum; 9 new diagnoses and 1 known case already under treatment. The number needed to screen to identify one new TB case was 3024 adults overall: 320 adults with prolonged cough and 80 HIV-infected adults with prolonged cough. All 9 newly diagnosed AFB+ participants were linked to TB care within 2 weeks and were initiated TB treatment.In a rural Ugandan setting, TB screening as an adjunct to large-scale mobile HIV testing campaigns provides an opportunity to increase TB case detection.