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We estimate life expectancy and average years of life lost (AYLL) after an HIV diagnosis using population-based surveillance data from 25 states that have had name-based HIV surveillance since 1996.We used US national HIV surveillance data (cases ≥13 years old) to model life expectancy after an HIV diagnosis using the life table approach. We then compared life expectancy at HIV diagnosis with that in the general population of the same age, sex, and race/ethnicity in the same calendar year using vital statistics data to estimate the AYLL due to an HIV diagnosis.Average life expectancy after HIV diagnosis increased from 10.5 to 22.5 years from 1996 to 2005. Life expectancy (years) was better for females than for males but improved less for females (females: 12.6-23.6 and males: 9.9-22.0). In 2005, life expectancy for black males was shortest, followed by Hispanic males and then white males. AYLL for cases diagnosed in 2005 was 21.1 years (males: 19.1 and females: 22.7) compared with 32.9 years in 1996.Disparity in life expectancy for females and both black and Hispanic males, compared with males and white males, respectively, persists and should be addressed.