The relationships between HIV infection, monocyte activation, and endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) are unknown. We compared ECFC, intermediate monocytes (CD14+ CD16+), and nonclassical monocytes (CD14dim CD16++) levels in HIV-infected participants virologically suppressed on antiretroviral therapy, HIV-infected treatment-naive participants, and HIV-uninfected healthy controls. ECFC levels were significantly higher in the HIV-infected virologically suppressed group compared with the uninfected controls. CD14+ CD16+ percentages (but not CD14dim CD16++ cells) were significantly higher in both HIV-infected groups vs. uninfected controls. In the HIV-infected groups, ECFCs and CD14+ CD16+ intermediate monocytes were significantly and inversely correlated. Lower availability of ECFCs may partly explain the relationship between greater intermediate monocytes and atherosclerosis in HIV.