Elevated Soluble CD14 and Lower D-Dimer Are Associated With Cigarette Smoking and Heavy Episodic Alcohol Use in Persons Living With HIV

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Abstract

Background:

Persons living with HIV are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease in part because of persistent inflammation and coagulation activation.

Methods:

We examined whether smoking and heavy episodic alcohol use (defined as 5 or more drinks on one occasion) were associated with greater monocyte activation (soluble CD14) and coagulation (D-dimer) in participants in the Study to Understand the Natural History of HIV and AIDS in the Era of Effective Therapy (the “SUN” Study), a prospective observational cohort.

Results:

Using regression analysis (n = 689), current smoking compared with nonsmoking was associated with significantly elevated soluble CD14 (B = 135.57, 95% confidence interval: 84.95 to 186.19, P < 0.001), whereas heavy alcohol use compared with nonheavy use was associated with significantly lower D-dimer levels (B = −0.059, 95% confidence interval: −0.102 to −0.016, P = 0.007).

Conclusions:

Smoking cessation should be encouraged by HIV care providers to improve mortality outcomes from all causes of death, particularly cardiovascular disease.

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