Brief Report: Cumulative Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate Exposure is Associated With Biomarkers of Tubular Injury and Fibrosis in HIV-Infected Men

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Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) can cause kidney damage, but current clinical tests are insensitive for detecting toxicity. Among 884 HIV-infected men enrolled in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, we measured urine biomarkers specific for tubular damage (interleukin-18, kidney injury molecule-1, procollagen type III N-terminal propeptide) and albuminuria. In adjusted analyses, each year of TDF exposure was independently associated with 3.3% higher interleukin-18 (95% CI: 0.8% to 5.8%), 3.4% higher kidney injury molecule-1 (1.1% to 5.7%), and 3.1% higher procollagen type III N-terminal propeptide (0.8% to 5.5%), but not with albuminuria (2.8%; −0.6% to 6.2%). Biomarkers of tubular damage may be more sensitive than albuminuria for detecting toxicity from TDF and other medications.

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