Latino gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States have a 50% greater incidence of HIV when compared with White MSM. Previous studies have analyzed factors contributing to condomless anal intercourse among Latino MSM, but few studies have followed cohorts of HIV-negative Latino MSM to determine circumstances for HIV infection. Informed by Syndemics theory, we examine behavioral, biological, and contextual factors associated with HIV infection for Latino MSM.Methods:
Risk assessment and HIV testing data were analyzed for all initially HIV negative, Latino MSM (n = 3111) visiting a community-based clinic in Los Angeles, CA from January 2009 to June 2014. Survival analyses were used to determine characteristics of Latino MSM who became HIV positive during the study time frame.Results:
Similar to previous studies of MSM, self-reported history of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and/or syphilis (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR): 1.97; CI: 1.28 to 3.04), receptive condomless anal intercourse (aHR: 1.7; CI: 1.16 to 2.49), and methamphetamine use (aHR: 1.99; CI: 1.15 to 3.43) predicted HIV infection. In addition, originating from Central America (aHR: 2.31; CI: 1.41 to 3.79), Latino ethnicity of the last sex partner (aHR: 1.67; CI: 1.16 to 2.39) and experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) (aHR: 1.73; CI: 1.13 to 2.64) were also associated with HIV infection among Latino MSM.Conclusions:
This is the first study to show independent associations between IPV and HIV infection among Latino MSM. This study shows that psychosocial conditions such as IPV fuel HIV incidence among Latino MSM, and psychosocial interventions should be considered to reduce HIV disparities among Latino MSM.