Infection by HTLV-1 Is Associated With High Levels of Proinflammatory Cytokines in HIV-HCV–Coinfected Patients

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Objectives:HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) share the same routes of infection, making coinfection by these viruses a frequent finding in endemic areas. However, there is scarce information on the clinical/immunological consequences of triple infection. Coinfection by HTLV-1 is able to modulate cytokine's production in patients with HIV, but there are no data on the immune response of HIV-HCV-HTLV-1–infected patients.Methods:We compared the plasma levels of 25 different cytokines in patients with HIV-HCV, according to their serostatus to HTLV-1 infection. Eligible patients should be on stable highly active antiretroviral therapy and have undetectable HIV-1 plasma viral load for, at least, 12 months. Cytokines levels were also evaluated by CD4+ cells count, rates of sustained virological response (SVR) to previous HCV treatment, frequency of spontaneous HCV clearance, and HCV/IFN-λ3 genotypes.Results:Twenty-five patients (15 coinfected by HIV and HCV, 10 coinfected by HIV, HCV, and HTLV-1) were evaluated. Among the triply infected group, 3 had undetectable HCV viremia (spontaneous clearance). All but one remaining patients were previously treated for HCV, with similar SVR rates (∼29%). Cytokines levels did not differ per HCV/IFN-λ3 genotypes, mean CD4+ cells count, age, sex, or SVR. However, patients coinfected by HTLV-1 showed significantly higher levels of IL-1b, IL-2, TNF-α, IFN-γ, MIP-1α, RANTES, and interferon-induced protein 10 (IP-10) than HIV-HCV–coinfected ones. Patients presenting HCV spontaneous clearance had the highest levels of cytokines.Conclusions:Coinfection by HTLV-1 increases the plasma levels of proinflammatory cytokines of patients with HIV-HCV and can influence the outcomes of coinfected patients.

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