Brief Report: Changes in Plasma RANKL-Osteoprotegerin in a Prospective, Randomized Clinical Trial of Initial Antiviral Therapy

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Abstract

Background:

The contributions of the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin (OPG) axis to cardiovascular and bone disease in treated HIV-1 infection are not well defined.

Setting:

Prospective, observational, longitudinal study.

Methods:

In a subset analysis of a prospective randomized clinical trial, 234 HIV-1–infected antiretroviral therapy–naive participants received tenofovir–emtricitabine plus either atazanavir/ritonavir, darunavir/ritonavir, or raltegravir and achieved plasma HIV-1 RNA <50 copies per milliliter by week 24 and thereafter. Associations between plasma RANKL, OPG, or RANKL/OPG ratio levels with total, hip, and spine bone mineral density (BMD) loss or progression of carotid artery intima-media thickness were assessed longitudinally over 96 weeks.

Results:

Over 96 weeks, all treatment groups had similar and sustained declines in plasma RANKL, increases in plasma OPG, and subsequently, decreases in the RANKL/OPG ratio. There were no associations between plasma RANKL or RANKL/OPG ratio levels with total, hip, and spine BMD loss or progression of carotid artery intima-media thickness; however, plasma OPG in successfully treated HIV-infected patients (week 48 and 96) was associated with spine BMD loss.

Conclusions:

In virologically suppressed HIV-infected patients, the evolution of bone disease could be linked to plasma OPG levels; however, the role of plasma levels of RANKL and RANKL/OPG ratio in the prediction of morbidity in treated HIV-1 infection may be limited.

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