Factors Associated With Early Virological Response in HIV-Infected Individuals Starting Antiretroviral Therapy in Brazil (2014–2015): Results From a Large HIV Surveillance Cohort

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To identify clinical, sociodemographic, and treatment-related factors associated with early virological response in HIV-infected adults starting antiretroviral treatment (ART) in Brazil in 2014–2015.


Data from 4 information systems from the Brazilian AIDS Program were combined to create a historical cohort. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to assess the likelihood of not achieving viral load suppression (VLS), defined as having either a viral load (VL) count >200 copies per milliliter or an aids-related death recorded within 180 ± 90 days after treatment initiation.


Among 76,950 individuals, 64.8% were men; median age, CD4+, and VL counts were 34 years, 378 cells per micro liter, and 38,131 copies per milliliter, respectively, and 85.2% achieved VLS. In the multivariate analysis, some factors which increased the odds of non-VLS were as follows: lower CD4+ and higher VL counts, younger age, heterosexual or injection drug use groups (relative to men who have sex with men), lower educational level, black/brown race, higher pill burden, and higher dosing frequency. Regimens containing boosted protease inhibitors were similar to those containing nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and superior to those containing unboosted protease inhibitors (all P values <0.001). No difference was observed between patients with CD4+ counts 350–499 and 500+ cells per micro liter.


Our findings support the decision made in Brazil in 2013 to recommend immediate initiation of ART regardless of clinical stage or CD4+. Several factors were found to be associated with poorer virologic outcomes and should be addressed to maximize ART adherence and success rates.

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