To describe the association of lifetime intake of caffeinated coffee, in cup-years, to bone mineral density (BMD) of the hip and spine in postmenopausal women; and to determine the effect of regular milk intake on this association.Design
Women from an established epidemiologic cohort had measures of BMD and gave a medical and behavioral history that included caffeinated coffee and daily milk intake between the ages of 12 and 18 years, 20 and 50 years, and 50 years of age and older.Setting
A community-based population of older women, Rancho Bernardo, Calif.Participants
All 980 postmenopausal women aged 50 to 98 years (mean age, 72.7 years) who participated between 1988 and 1991.Main Outcome Measures
Bone density at the hip and lumbar spine measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry.Conclusions
Lifetime caffeinated coffee intake equivalent to two cups per day is associated with decreased bone density in older women who do not drink milk on a daily basis.