Effect of a Multifaceted Quality Improvement Intervention on Hospital Personnel Adherence to Performance Measures in Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke in China: A Randomized Clinical Trial

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ImportanceIn China and other parts of the world, hospital personnel adherence to evidence-based stroke care is limited.ObjectiveTo determine whether a multifaceted quality improvement intervention can improve hospital personnel adherence to evidence-based performance measures in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in China.Design, Setting, and ParticipantsA multicenter, cluster-randomized clinical trial among 40 public hospitals in China that enrolled 4800 patients hospitalized with AIS from August 10, 2014, through June 20, 2015, with 12-month follow-up through July 30, 2016.InterventionsTwenty hospitals received a multifaceted quality improvement intervention (intervention group; 2400 patients), including a clinical pathway, care protocols, quality coordinator oversight, and performance measure monitoring and feedback. Twenty hospitals participated in the stroke registry with usual care (control group; 2400 patients).Main Outcomes and MeasuresThe primary outcome was hospital personnel adherence to 9 AIS performance measures, with co-primary outcomes of a composite of percentage of performance measures adhered to, and as all-or-none. Secondary outcomes included in-hospital mortality and long-term outcomes (a new vascular event, disability [modified Rankin Scale score, 3-5], and all-cause mortality) at 3, 6, and 12 months.ResultsAmong 4800 patients with AIS enrolled from 40 hospitals and randomized (mean age, 65 years; women, 1757 [36.6%]), 3980 patients (82.9%) completed the 12-month follow-up of the trial. Patients in intervention group were more likely to receive performance measures than those in the control groups (composite measure, 88.2% vs 84.8%, respectively; absolute difference, 3.54% [95% CI, 0.68% to 6.40%], P = .02). The all-or-none measure did not significantly differ between the intervention and control groups (53.8% vs 47.8%, respectively; absolute difference, 6.69% [95% CI, −0.41% to 13.79%], P = .06). New clinical vascular events were significantly reduced in the intervention group compared with the control group at 3 months (3.9% vs 5.3%, respectively; difference, −2.03% [95% CI, −3.51% to −0.55%]; P = .007), 6 months (6.3% vs 7.8%, respectively; difference, −2.18% [95% CI, −4.0% to −0.35%]; P = .02) and 12 months (9.1% vs 11.8%, respectively; difference, −3.13% [95% CI, −5.28% to −0.97%]; P = .005).Conclusions and RelevanceAmong 40 hospitals in China, a multifaceted quality improvement intervention compared with usual care resulted in a statistically significant but small improvement in hospital personnel adherence to evidence-based performance measures in patients with acute ischemic stroke when assessed as a composite measure, but not as an all-or-none measure. Further research is needed to understand the generalizability of these findings.Trial RegistrationClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02212912

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