One-Year Mortality for Bivalirudin vs Heparins Plus Optional Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Inhibitor Treatment Started in the Ambulance for ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction: A Secondary Analysis of the EUROMAX Randomized Clinical Trial

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Uncertainty exists regarding potential survival benefits of bivalirudin compared with heparin with routine or optional use of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (GPIs) in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Few data are available regarding long-term mortality in the context of contemporary practice with frequent use of radial access and novel platelet adenosine diphosphate P2Y12 receptor inhibitors.


To assess the effect of bivalirudin monotherapy compared with unfractionated or low-molecular-weight heparin plus optional GPIs on 1-year mortality.

Design, Setting, and Participants

This international, randomized, open-label clinical trial (EUROMAX [European Ambulance Acute Coronary Syndrome Angiography]) included 2198 patients with STEMI undergoing transport for primary percutaneous coronary intervention from March 10, 2010, through June 20, 2013, and followed up for 1 year. Patients were randomized (1:1) in ambulance to bivalirudin monotherapy vs unfractionated or low-molecular-weight heparin plus optional GPIs (control group). Analysis was based on intention to treat.

Main Outcomes and Measures

The primary outcome of this prespecified analysis was 1-year mortality. All deaths were adjudicated as cardiac or noncardiac by an independent, blinded clinical events committee. One-year mortality was assessed and examined across multiple prespecified subgroups.


Of the 2198 patients enrolled (1675 men [76.2%] and 523 women [23.8%]; median [interquartile range] age, 62 [52-72] years), complete 1-year follow-up data were available for 2164 (98.5%). All-cause 1-year mortality occurred in 118 patients (5.4%). The number of all-cause deaths was the same for both treatment groups (59 deaths; relative risk [RR], 1.02; 95% CI, 0.72-1.45; P = .92). No differences were noted in the rates of 1-year cardiac death (44 [4.0%] for the bivalirudin group vs 48 [4.3%] for the control group; RR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.63-1.39; P = .74) or noncardiac death (15 [1.4%] for the bivalirudin group vs 11 [1.0%] for the control group; RR, 1.39; 95% CI, 0.64-3.01; P = .40). Results were consistent across the prespecified patient subgroups. The rate of deaths occurring from 30 days to 1 year was also similar (27 [2.5%] in the bivalirudin group vs 25 [2.3%] in the control group; RR, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.64-1.88; P = .73).

Conclusions and Relevance

In patients with STEMI who were being transported for primary percutaneous coronary intervention, treatment with bivalirudin or with heparin with optional use of GPI resulted in similar 1-year mortality. The reduced composite end point of death and/or major bleeding at 30 days in the bivalirudin arm of the EUROMAX trial did not translate into reduced cardiovascular or all-cause death at 1 year.

Trial Registration Identifier: NCT01087723

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