Variation in the Incidence and Magnitude of Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes in Breast Cancer Subtypes: A Systematic Review

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Abstract

Importance

The presence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) is a favorable prognostic factor in breast cancer, and TILs may synergize with chemotherapy and immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy for improved clinical response. A more detailed understanding of the variation in lymphocytic infiltration in breast cancer may aid in identifying subtypes more amenable to immunomodulation.

Objective

To determine the median percentage of patients with breast cancer with no, intermediate, or high levels of TIL and assess variations in lymphocytic cell subsets across breast cancer subtypes.

Evidence Review

Eligible studies (PubMed, 1990-2015) analyzed tumor lymphocytic, CD8+, and FOXP3+ cellular infiltrates, and used multivariable analyses and quantitative methods for enumerating cell populations. Selection of of studies was performed in accordance with PRISMA guidelines and evaluated by 2 independent appraisers.

Findings

Fifteen studies (n = 13 914) met prespecified criteria and were reviewed in December 2015. A median of 11% (range, 5%-26%) of breast cancers demonstrate lymphocyte-predominant breast cancer (LPBC), with approximately 16% of cancers showing no evidence of TILs. Triple-negative (TN) breast cancers demonstrated the highest incidence of LPBC (20%; range, 4%-37%). This incidence is similar to that of breast cancers that are human epidermal growth factor 2 positive and either hormone receptor positive or negative (HER2+) at 16% (range 11%-24%). Hormone receptor positive/HER2− (HR+) breast cancer showed the lowest incidence of LPBC at 6% (range, 3%-12%). CD8+ T-cell infiltrates, indicative of type I immunity, were found in 48% of all breast cancers (range, 32%-80%) with similar levels observed in TN (60%; range, 40%-91%) and HER2+ disease (61%; range, 40%-83%). Fewer HR+ tumors demonstrated CD8+ TIL (43%; range, 30%-73%). The highest levels of FOXP3+ cells were observed in TN (70%; range, 65%-76%) and HER2+ disease (67%; range, 61%-74%). A minority of HR+ breast cancers demonstrated high levels of tumor-infiltrating FOXP3+ cells (38%; range, 35%-41%).

Conclusions and Relevance

The magnitude of TIL is variable within and between breast cancer subtypes. Levels of lymphocytic subpopulations may identify breast cancers more amenable to immunomodulation and indicate additional strategies to enhance immunity in patients with low to moderate levels of TILs.

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