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Establishment of an optimal cancer surveillance program is important to reduce cancer-related morbidity and mortality in individuals with Li-Fraumeni syndrome, a rare, highly penetrant cancer predisposition syndrome.To determine the feasibility and efficacy of a comprehensive cancer screening regimen in Li-Fraumeni syndrome, using multiple radiologic techniques, including rapid whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and laboratory measurements.Baseline evaluation of a prospective cancer screening study was conducted from June 1, 2012, to July 30, 2016, at the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health (an academic research facility). Participants included 116 individuals with Li-Fraumeni syndrome with a germline TP53 pathogenic variant who were aged 3 years or older at the time of baseline screening and had not received active cancer therapy at least 6 months prior to screening.Detection of prevalent cancer with multimodal screening techniques and the need for additional evaluation.Of the 116 study participants, 77 (66.4%) were female; median age was 37.6 years (range, 3-68 years). Baseline cancer screening led to the diagnosis of cancer in 8 (6.9%) individuals (2 lung adenocarcinomas, 1 osteosarcoma, 1 sarcoma, 1 astrocytoma, 1 low-grade glioma, and 2 preinvasive breast cancers [ductal carcinoma in situ]); all but 1 required only resection for definitive treatment. A total of 40 (34.5%) participants required additional studies to further investigate abnormalities identified on screening, with 32 having incidental, benign, or normal findings, resulting in a false-positive rate of 29.6%. Non-MRI techniques, including baseline blood tests, abdominal ultrasonography in children, mammography, and colonoscopy, did not lead to a diagnosis of prevalent cancer in our cohort.This study describes the establishment and feasibility of an intensive cancer surveillance protocol for individuals with Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Prevalent cancers were detected at an early stage with baseline whole-body, brain, and breast MRI. Prospective screening of the participants is under way.