Immunotherapy for recurrent and/or metastatic (R/M) squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) is promising. The toll-like receptor 8 (TLR8) agonist motolimod may stimulate innate and adaptive immunity.Objective
To determine whether motolimod improves outcomes for R/M SCCHN when combined with standard therapy.Design, Setting, and Participants
The Active8 study was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial enrolling adult patients (age ≥18 years) with histologically confirmed R/M SCCHN of the oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, or larynx between October 2013 and August 2015. Follow-up ended September 2016. Analysis for the present report was conducted between June 2016 and December 2017.Interventions
Combination treatment with platinum (carboplatin or cisplatin), fluorouracil, cetuximab (the EXTREME regimen), and either placebo or motolimod, each administered intravenously every 3 weeks. Patients received a maximum of 6 chemotherapy cycles, after which patients received weekly cetuximab with either placebo or motolimod every 4 weeks.Main Outcomes and Measures
Progression-free survival (PFS) as determined by independent central review using immune-related RECIST (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors). Key secondary end points included overall survival (OS) and safety.Results
Of 195 patients enrolled, 85% were men (n = 166); 82% were white (n = 159); median age was 58 years (range 23-81 years). Median PFS was 6.1 vs 5.9 months (hazard ratio [HR], 0.99; 1-sided 90% CI, 0.00-1.22; P = .47), and median OS was 13.5 vs 11.3 months (HR, 0.95; 1-sided 90% CI, 0.00-1.22; P = .40) for motolimod vs placebo. Increased incidence of injection site reactions, pyrexia, chills, anemia, and acneiform rash were noted with motolimod. Of 83 cases oropharyngeal cancer, 52 (63%) were human papillomavirus (HPV) positive. In a prespecified subgroup analysis of HPV-positive participants, motolimod vs placebo resulted in significantly longer PFS (7.8 vs 5.9 months; HR, 0.58; 1-sided 90% CI, 0.00-0.90; P = .046) and OS (15.2 vs 12.6 months; HR, 0.41; 1-sided 90% CI, 0.00-0.77; P = .03). In an exploratory analysis, patients with injection site reactions had longer PFS and OS (median PFS, 7.1 vs 5.9 months; HR, 0.69; 1-sided 90% CI, 0.00-0.93; P = .06; and median OS, 18.7 vs 12.6; HR, 0.56; 1-sided 90% CI, 0.00-0.81; P = .02).Conclusions and Relevance
Adding motolimod to the EXTREME regimen was well tolerated but did not improve PFS or OS in the intent-to-treat population. Significant benefit was observed in HPV-positive patients and those with injection site reactions, suggesting that TLR8 stimulation may benefit subset- and biomarker-selected patients.Trial Registration
ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01836029.