A Latent Class Analysis of DSM-III-R Pathological Gambling Criteria in Middle-Aged Men: Association with Psychiatric Disorders

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This study was designed to empirically derive latent classes based on PG criteria and to assess the association between nongambling psychiatric disorders and specific classes.


A total of 8138 community-based middle-aged men were surveyed, and 2720 were assessed for Diagnostic Interview Schedule, Version 3, Revised (DIS-III-R) pathologic gambling (PG). Latent class analysis (LCA) was applied to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual Version 3, Revised (DSM-III-R) criteria to identify gambling classes. χ2 and logistic regression models evaluated the association between gambling classes and lifetime psychiatric disorders.


The final model included 4 classes: class 0 (ie, 5418 individuals who never gambled 25 or more times per year) and classes 1–3 (identified by the LCA and comprising 2720 respondents assessed for PG). For the 9 individual criteria of PG, endorsement percentages ranged from 2%–6%, 4%–58%, and 53%–100% for classes 1–3, respectively. Nongambling psychiatric disorders were differentially associated with the 4 gambling classes, and psychopathology was more common in groups more frequently acknowledging PG criteria.


Empirical support is provided for distinct classes of gambling behaviors demonstrating differential associations with individual PG criteria and nongambling psychiatric disorders. The data-driven categorization of gambling behaviors provides direction for research on defining, preventing, and treating syndromal and subsyndromal PG.

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