Opioid use disorders attributed to tramadol (OUD-T) is a public health problem in Egypt. The objective of this study was to assess the psychiatric comorbidity among patients with opioid use disorder attributed to tramadol.Methods:
This study included 100 patients with opioid use disorders attributed to tramadol (according to DSM-IV-TR) and 100 control persons (matched for age, sex, and education), who were recruited from Zagazig University Hospital, Egypt. The participants were interviewed using Structured Clinical Interview for DSM disorders (SCID-I and SCID-II), Addiction Severity Index scale (patients), and urine screening for drugs.Results:
Twenty-four percent of the patients used tramadol only (pure tramadol group), whereas 76% of the patients used other substances in addition to tramadol (polysubstance group). Most (91%) of the patients had tramadol dependence. Forty-nine percent of the patients had psychiatric comorbidity, especially mood disorders (59.2%), whereas only 24% of the control persons had psychiatric comorbidity, especially anxiety disorders (83.3%). The most common personality disorders among patients were borderline (24%) and antisocial (22%), whereas in control persons, the most common personality disorders were obsessive compulsive personality disorder (8%) and the avoidant personality disorder (7%). Cluster B (76.6%) was the most common category among patients (compared with 25.8% in control persons), whereas cluster C (51.6%) was the most common category among control persons (compared with 15.6% in patients).Conclusions:
Most of the patients were dependent on tramadol, and approximately 3 out of 4 used many substances. Almost half of the patients had psychiatric comorbidity, and approximately 3 out of 4 had cluster B personality disorders.