Topiramate is a non-benzodiazepine anticonvulsant medication with multi-faceted pharmacologic action. It has emerged as an efficacious pharmacotherapeutic option for the treatment of addiction, especially alcohol use disorder (AUD). We present a broad narrative review of the putative mechanism of action and clinical utility of topiramate with regard to AUD and other substance use disorders. Collective evidence suggests topiramate is an effective treatment option in AUD, with notable efficacy in reducing harmful drinking patterns in AUD. Though not currently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the indication of AUD, topiramate should be considered as a pharmacological treatment option with high utility among AUD patients. Early pharmacogenetic studies raise the intriguing possibility of identifying patients likely to respond to topiramate using genetic testing, and initial studies show that topiramate may also be useful in treating cocaine use disorder, smoking cessation and behavioral addictions. However, further research is needed in all these areas.