Functional Recovery After Hip Fracture: The Combined Effects of Depressive Symptoms, Cognitive Impairment, and Delirium

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To measure the prevalence of depressive symptoms, cognitive impairment, and delirium in patients with hip fracture and to estimate their effect on functional recovery, institutionalization, and death after surgical repair.


Prospective cohort.


Hospital, follow-up to community and nursing home.


One hundred twenty-six patients aged 65 and older admitted for hip fracture repair.


Baseline measurements: Mini-Mental State Examination, Blessed Dementia Rating Scale, Geriatric Depression Scale, prefracture activities of daily living (ADLs), ambulatory status. The Confusion Assessment Method was used to diagnose in-hospital delirium. One- and 6-month outcomes were ADL decline, loss of ambulation, and new nursing home placement or death.


Twenty-two percent of patients had one cognitive or mood disorder, 30% had two, and 7% had three. At 1 month, each cognitive or mood disorder was independently associated with one or more adverse outcome. Considered together, each additional cognitive or mood disorder was associated with greater odds of 1 month outcomes (ADL decline: odds ratio (OR)=1.8, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.1–2.9; decline in ambulation: OR=1.8, 95% CI=1.1–3.0; nursing home placement or death: OR=3.9, 95% CI=1.9–8.1).


Cognitive and mood disorders were common in elderly hip fracture patients and were associated with greater risk of poor outcomes, both independently and in combination. Recognition and treatment of these conditions may reduce adverse outcomes in this vulnerable population.

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