Metabolic complications such as HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome are common in patients with HIV-1 infection who are taking highly active antiretroviral therapy. HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome is characterized by dyslipidemia, fat redistribution, and altered glucose metabolism; however, there has been little study of relationships between these risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) and lifestyle risks. The aims of this study were to (a) describe the physical activity levels, nutrition habits, and smoking behaviors of persons with HIV-1 infection; (b) describe their CHD risks and estimate 10-year risk for CHD outcomes; and (c) examine the relationship between potentially modifiable lifestyle behaviors and risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in persons with HIV-1 infection receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. Variables included lipid profile and other metabolic indices, body fat distribution, body mass index, blood pressure, and lifestyle behaviors (physical activity, dietary habits, smoking). A cross-sectional design and convenience sampling (n=95) was used. Participants had multiple modifiable risk factors: 20% had a 10-year risk of 10% or higher of developing CHD. Results underscore the need for health promotion interventions to target lifestyle risks in persons with HIV-1 infection taking highly active retroviral therapy.