Factors Associated With HIV Testing in Youth in the United States: An Integrative Review

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Abstract

We used an integrative review to synthesize existing literature on the factors associated with HIV testing by youth ages 13 to 24 years in the United States. PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar were systematically searched and 44 original research studies met our criteria. A directed qualitative content analysis was conducted to integrate findings according to the personal, relationship, community, and society levels of the social-ecological model. Female gender, African American race, age, and physical illness were some of the factors more consistently associated with HIV testing. Modifiable factors such as fear, drug use, poor condom use, partner communication, and multiple sexual partners were also noted as influencing HIV testing in youth. Our integrative review revealed gaps in the literature that need further exploration, particularly in the area of community and society influences on HIV testing for youth. Implications for research, practice, and policy are discussed.

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