Cultural Adaptation of a Medication Adherence Intervention With Prisoners Living With HIV in Indonesia: A Pragmatic Approach to Intervention Development

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Cultural adaptation is a research strategy used to tailor evidence-informed interventions for new populations and settings. We describe a pragmatic approach used to culturally adapt a nurse-led medication adherence intervention, Adherence Through Home Education and Nursing Assessment (ATHENA), for prisoners living with HIV in Indonesia. Researchers reviewed data from completed studies in Indonesia and identified core components of the ATHENA intervention considered essential for effectiveness. Adaptations likely to render ATHENA acceptable and feasible in the Indonesian prison setting were proposed. An intervention led by nurses and peer educators was feasible and congruent with existing models in Indonesian prisons. Involving prisoners with HIV in successive developmental phases helped to ensure a good cultural fit. In the context of prisons and other freedom-limiting environments, a pragmatic approach that integrates members of the target population within an anti-oppressive Freirian pedagogical framework is highly appropriate for adapting evidence-informed interventions.

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