Crystal Chapman Lambert, PhD, CRNP, FNP-BC, ACRN, AAHIVS, is an Assistant Professor, School of Nursing, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA.Michael J. Mugavero, MD, MHSc, is a Professor, School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA.Yaseen S. Najjar, MD, is an International Clinical Training Program (InterACT) Fellow, School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA.Comfort Enah, PhD, RN, is an Associate Professor, School of Nursing, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA.Barbara J. Guthrie, PhD, RN, FAAN, is a Professor, Bouvé College of Health, School of Nursing, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
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The purpose of this systematic review was to assess the state of adherence to HIV care such as HIV medication and appointment adherence among Black women in the United States. After a systematic search of CINAHL, PubMed, EMBASE, and clinicialtrials.gov, 26 studies and two ongoing trials met inclusion criteria. Psychosocial factors such as intersectional stigmas and depression were among the salient factors associated with adherence-to-care behaviors in women living with HIV (WLWH). In addition, interpersonal factors such as social support and the patient–provider relationship were frequently associated with adherence-to-care behaviors. No culturally relevant interventions for Black WLWH were found in the literature, but one ongoing trial that was developed specifically for Black WLWH seemed promising. Considering the dearth of tailored interventions, more gender-specific and culturally relevant interventions are urgently needed to improve adherence-to-care behaviors and optimize health outcomes for Black WLWH.