Neuropsychiatric symptoms related to aciclovir or valaciclovir treatment have been a problem since aciclovir was introduced in the early 1980s. We have previously found that subjects with aciclovir-related neuropsychiatric symptoms have increased serum concentrations of aciclovir's main metabolite, 9-carboxymethoxymethylguanine (CMMG). The aim of this study was to investigate whether CMMG was present in the CSF of aciclovir- or valaciclovir-treated subjects with or without neuropsychiatric side effects that appeared during therapy.Methods
We investigated retrospectively CSF collected from 21 aciclovir- or valaciclovir-treated subjects. Of these, 9 were subjects with neuropsychiatric signs and symptoms and 12 were asymptomatic subjects, including 10 subjects from a valaciclovir multiple sclerosis trial and 2 subjects with recurrent herpes encephalitis.Results
CMMG could only be detected in the CSF of subjects with neuropsychiatric symptoms and signs (median CMMG concentration 1.0 μmol/L, range 0.6–7.0). The concentration of CMMG was below the limit of quantification (<0.5 μmol/L) in asymptomatic subjects (P < 0.001). All patients with neuropsychiatric signs and symptoms, except one, had acute renal function impairment or chronic renal failure.Conclusions
These results are consistent with the hypothesis that CMMG is involved in the development of neuropsychiatric side effects in aciclovir- or valaciclovir-treated patients. Measurement of CMMG in CSF and/or serum is a promising tool in the diagnostic procedure for aciclovir- or valaciclovir-treated patients with neuropsychiatric symptoms and may help to differentiate between side effects and herpes encephalitis.