Multidrug efflux inhibition in Acinetobacter baumannii: comparison between 1-(1-naphthylmethyl)-piperazine and phenyl-arginine-β-naphthylamide

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Objectives1-(1-Naphthylmethyl)-piperazine (NMP) has been shown to reverse multidrug resistance (MDR) in Escherichia coli overexpressing RND-type efflux pumps but there are no data on its activity in non-fermenters like Acinetobacter.MethodsAntimicrobial susceptibility in the absence and presence of NMP and, for comparison, phenyl-arginine-β-naphthylamide (PAβN), another putative efflux pump inhibitor (EPI), was tested in laboratory and mutant strains with differing intracellular dye accumulation and expression of adeB, and in clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii.ResultsBased on a 4-fold or greater MIC reduction, the effects of both EPIs at low concentrations (25 mg/L) were limited. PAβN had a highly selective action on the reduction in the MIC of rifampicin and clarithromycin. At a higher concentration of the putative EPIs (100 mg/L), NMP was more active than PAβN. This effect was not limited to strains with adeB overexpression, but affected the susceptibility to linezolid, chloramphenicol and tetracycline most, and was enhanced in clinical isolates with reduced fluoroquinolone susceptibility.ConclusionNMP can partially reverse MDR in A. baumannii and differs substantially in its activity from that of PAβN.

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