Clinically validated mutation scores for HIV-1 resistance to fosamprenavir/ritonavir

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We developed clinically relevant genotypic scores for resistance to fosamprenavir/ritonavir in HIV-1 protease inhibitor (PI)-experienced patients.


PI-experienced patients with virological failure receiving fosamprenavir/ritonavir as the sole PI for at least 3 months and with detectable fosamprenavir plasma levels were included. The impact of baseline protease mutations on virological response (VR, i.e. decrease in plasma HIV-1 RNA between baseline and month 3) was analysed using the Mann–Whitney test. Mutations with prevalence >10% and P value <0.10 were retained. The Jonckheere–Terpstra test was used to select the combination of mutations most strongly associated with VR. The association between score and VR was assessed by multivariate backward regression.


In the 73 patients included, the median baseline HIV-1 RNA was 4.6 log10 copies/mL (range: 2.7–6.9) and the mean decrease at month 3 was −1.07 ± 1.40 log10 copies/mL. Ninety per cent of the patients were infected by HIV-1 subtype B variants. Two fosamprenavir/ritonavir mutation scores were constructed: score A (L10F/I/V + L33F + M36I + I54L/M/V/A/T/S + I62V + V82A/F/C/G + I84V + L90M) was based only on mutations associated with a worse VR, whereas score B (L10FIV + L33F + M36I + I54L/M/V/A/T/S + A71V − V77I − N88S + L90M) also took into account favourable mutations. Both scores were independent predictors of VR, however, co-administration of tenofovir was associated with a worse VR and the presence of the N88S protease mutation and co-administration of enfuvirtide with a better VR.


These clinically validated mutation scores should be of interest for the clinical management of PI-experienced patients. The fosamprenavir/ritonavir score A was introduced in the 2006 ANRS algorithm along with isolated mutations I50V and V32I + I47V.

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