Molecular and epidemiological characterization of HIV-1 infection networks involving transmitted drug resistance mutations in Northern Greece

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To determine the contribution of transmission clusters to transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in newly diagnosed antiretroviral-naive HIV-1-infected patients in Northern Greece during 2000–07.


The prevalence of TDR was estimated in 369 individuals who were diagnosed with HIV-1 infection in the period 2000–07 at the National AIDS Reference Laboratory of Northern Greece. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using a maximum likelihood method on partial pol sequences. TDR was defined in accordance with the surveillance drug resistance mutation list (2009 update).


The overall prevalence of TDR in our population was 12.5% [46/369, 95% confidence interval (CI) 9.1%–15.8%], comprising 7.6% (28/369) resistant to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, 5.4% (20/369) resistant to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and 3.3% (12/369) resistant to protease inhibitors. Dual class resistance was identified in 3.8% (14/369). Infection with subtype A was the sole predictor associated with TDR in multivariate analysis (odds ratio 2.15, 95% CI 1.10–4.19, P = 0.025). Phylogenetic analyses revealed three statistically robust transmission clusters involving drug-resistant strains, including one cluster of 12 patients, 10 of whom were infected with a strain carrying both T215 revertants and Y181C mutations.


Our findings underline the substantial impact of transmission networks on TDR in our population.

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