Using deep sequencing methods, we intensively investigated the selective pressure of maraviroc on the viral population in four patients with dual/mixed HIV-1 experiencing treatment failure.Methods
Patients received maraviroc add-on therapy (n = 4). Tropism was determined by Monogram's Trofile assay and/or ‘deep’ sequencing. Longitudinal ‘deep’ sequence analysis used triplicate HIV V3 RT–PCR on plasma samples. Sequences were interpreted using the geno2phenocoreceptor algorithm with a 3.5% false-positive rate (FPR) cut-off.Results
Patients had a median viral load of 4.7 log10 HIV RNA copies/mL with a median of 24% chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4 (CXCR4)-using virus at baseline. Following maraviroc exposure, the chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 (CCR5)-using virus (R5) plasma viral load decreased by at least 1 log10, and only non-R5 variants with extremely low FPR values predominated after 21 days. Virus with an FPR ≤1.8% accounted for more than 90% of the circulating virus, having expanded to occupy the ‘space’ left by the suppression of R5 variants. Population genetic estimates of viral fitness in the presence of maraviroc showed a steep rise around an FPR value of 2%.Conclusions
Longitudinal analysis of independent R5 and non-R5 HIV populations shows that maraviroc selects viruses with an extremely low FPR, implying that the antiviral activity of maraviroc may extend to a broader range of HIV variants than previously suspected.