Vaginal concentrations of lactic acid potently inactivate HIV

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Abstract

Objectives

When Lactobacillus spp. dominate the vaginal microbiota of women of reproductive age they acidify the vagina to pH <4.0 by producing ∼1% lactic acid in a nearly racemic mixture of D- and L-isomers. We determined the HIV virucidal activity of racemic lactic acid, and its D- and L-isomers, compared with acetic acid and acidity alone (by the addition of HCl).

Methods

HIV-1 and HIV-2 were transiently treated with acids in the absence or presence of human genital secretions at 37°C for different time intervals, then immediately neutralized and residual infectivity determined in the TZM-bl reporter cell line.

Results

L-lactic acid at 0.3% (w/w) was 17-fold more potent than D-lactic acid in inactivating HIVBa-L. Complete inactivation of different HIV-1 subtypes and HIV-2 was achieved with ≥0.4% (w/w) L-lactic acid. At a typical vaginal pH of 3.8, L-lactic acid at 1% (w/w) more potently and rapidly inactivated HIVBa-L and HIV-1 transmitter/founder strains compared with 1% (w/w) acetic acid and with acidity alone, all adjusted to pH 3.8. A final concentration of 1% (w/w) L-lactic acid maximally inactivated HIVBa-L in the presence of cervicovaginal secretions and seminal plasma. The anti-HIV activity of L-lactic acid was pH dependent, being abrogated at neutral pH, indicating that its virucidal activity is mediated by protonated lactic acid and not the lactate anion.

Conclusions

L-lactic acid at physiological concentrations demonstrates potent HIV virucidal activity distinct from acidity alone and greater than acetic acid, suggesting a protective role in the sexual transmission of HIV.

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