The objective of this study was to examine Klebsiella oxytoca clonal and phylogenetic diversity, based on an international collection of carriage isolates non-susceptible to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs).Methods
The study material comprised 68 rectal carriage K. oxytoca isolates non-susceptible to ESCs recovered in 2008–11 from patients in 14 hospitals across Europe and Israel. ESC resistance was tested phenotypically; genes encoding ESBLs, AmpC cephalosporinases and carbapenemases were amplified and sequenced. The isolates were typed by PFGE and MLST, followed by sequencing of blaOXY genes.Results
MLST and PFGE distinguished 34 STs and 47 pulsotypes among the isolates, respectively. Six STs were split into several pulsotypes each. Five STs were more prevalent (n = 2–9) and occurred in several countries each, including ST2, ST9 and ST141, which belong to a growing international clonal complex (CC), CC2. Four phylogenetic lineages were distinguished, each with another type of chromosomal OXY-type β-lactamase. Three of these, with OXY-1/-5, OXY-2 types and OXY-4, corresponded to previously described phylogroups KoI, KoII and KoIV, respectively. A single isolate from Israel represented a distinct lineage with a newly defined OXY-7 type. The phylogroups showed interesting differences in mechanisms of ESC resistance; KoI strains rarely overexpressed the OXY enzymes but commonly produced ESBLs, whereas KoII strains often were OXY hyperproducers and carried ESBLs much less frequently. AmpCs (DHA-1) and carbapenemases (VIM-1) occurred sporadically.Conclusions
The study confirmed the high genetic diversity of the collection of K. oxytoca ESC-non-susceptible isolates, composed of phylogroups with distinct types of OXY-type β-lactamases, and revealed some STs of broad geographical distribution.