Dose optimization of voriconazole/anidulafungin combination against : clinical implications for azole-resistant aspergillosisAspergillus fumigatus: clinical implications for azole-resistant aspergillosis using an : clinical implications for azole-resistant aspergillosisin vitro: clinical implications for azole-resistant aspergillosis pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model and response surface analysis: clinical implications for azole-resistant aspergillosis

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Abstract

Background

Combination therapy of voriconazole with an echinocandin is often employed in order to increase the efficacy of voriconazole monotherapy.

Methods

Four clinical Aspergillus fumigatus isolates with different in vitro susceptibilities to voriconazole (MIC 0.125–2 mg/L) and anidulafungin (MEC 0.008–0.016 mg/L) were tested in an in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model simulating human serum concentrations of standard dosages of voriconazole and anidulafungin. Fungal growth was assessed using galactomannan production and quantitative PCR. Drug concentrations were determined with bioassays. Pharmacodynamic interactions were assessed using Bliss independence analysis (BI) and Loewe additivity-based canonical mixture response-surface non-linear regression analysis (LA). Probability of target attainment (PTA) was estimated with Monte Carlo analysis for different doses of anidulafungin (25, 50 and 100 mg) and azole resistance rates (5%–25%).

Results

Synergy [BI 51% (8%–80%), LA 0.63 (0.38–0.79)] was found at low anidulafungin (fCmax/MEC <10) and voriconazole (fAUC/MIC <10) exposures, whereas antagonism [BI 12% (5%–18%, LA 1.12 (1.04–4.6)] was found at higher drug exposures. The largest increase in PTA was found with 25 mg of anidulafungin and voriconazole MIC distributions with high (>10%) resistance rates. PTAs for isolates with voriconazole MICs of 1, 2 and 4 mg/L was 78%, 12% and 0% with voriconazole monotherapy and 96%–100%, 68%–82% and 9%–20% with combination therapy, respectively. Optimal activity was associated with a voriconazole tCmin/MIC ratio of 1.5 for monotherapy and 0.75 for combination therapy.

Conclusions

The present study indicated that the combination of voriconazole with low-dose anidulafungin may increase the efficacy and reduce the cost and potential toxicity of antifungal therapy, particularly against azole-resistant A. fumigatus isolates and in patients with subtherapeutic serum levels. This hypothesis warrants further in vivo verification.

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