Development and validation of the INCREMENT-ESBL predictive score for mortality in patients with bloodstream infections due to extended-spectrum-β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae

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Background. Bloodstream infections (BSIs) due to ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) are frequent yet outcome prediction rules for clinical use have not been developed. The objective was to define and validate a predictive risk score for 30 day mortality.

Methods. A multinational retrospective cohort study including consecutive episodes of BSI due to ESBL-E was performed; cases were randomly assigned to a derivation cohort (DC) or a validation cohort (VC). The main outcome variable was all-cause 30 day mortality. A predictive score was developed using logistic regression coefficients for the DC, then tested in the VC.

Results. The DC and VC included 622 and 328 episodes, respectively. The final multivariate logistic regression model for mortality in the DC included age >50 years (OR = 2.63; 95% CI: 1.18–5.85; 3 points), infection due to Klebsiella spp. (OR = 2.08; 95% CI: 1.21–3.58; 2 points), source other than urinary tract (OR = 3.6; 95% CI: 2.02–6.44; 3 points), fatal underlying disease (OR = 3.91; 95% CI: 2.24–6.80; 4 points), Pitt score >3 (OR = 3.04; 95 CI: 1.69–5.47; 3 points), severe sepsis or septic shock at presentation (OR = 4.8; 95% CI: 2.72–8.46; 4 points) and inappropriate early targeted therapy (OR = 2.47; 95% CI: 1.58–4.63; 2 points). The score showed an area under the receiver operating curve (AUROC) of 0.85 in the DC and 0.82 in the VC. Mortality rates for patients with scores of < 11 and ≥11 were 5.6% and 45.9%, respectively, in the DC, and 5.4% and 34.8% in the VC.

Conclusions. We developed and validated an easy-to-collect predictive scoring model for all-cause 30 day mortality useful for identifying patients at high and low risk of mortality.

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