Preladenant as an Adjunctive Therapy With Levodopa in Parkinson Disease: Two Randomized Clinical Trials and Lessons Learned

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Abstract

Importance

Preladenant is an adenosine 2A receptor antagonist that reduced “off” time in a placebo-controlled phase 2b trial in patients with Parkinson disease (PD). We sought to confirm its efficacy in phase 3 trials.

Objective

To evaluate preladenant as an adjunct to levodopa in patients with PD and motor fluctuations.

Design, Setting, and Participants

Two 12-week, phase 3, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trials performed from July 15, 2010, to April 16, 2013. The setting included neurology clinics, clinical research centers, and hospitals in the Americas, the European Union, Eastern Europe, India, and South Africa. Participants included patients with moderate to severe PD taking levodopa who were experiencing motor fluctuations.

Interventions

In trial 1, a total of 778 eligible patients were randomized to the addition of preladenant (2 mg, 5 mg, or 10 mg twice daily), placebo, or rasagiline mesylate (1 mg/d) in a 1:1:1:1:1 ratio. In trial 2, a total of 476 eligible patients were randomized to the addition of preladenant (2 mg or 5 mg twice daily) or placebo in a 1:1:1 ratio.

Main Outcomes and Measures

The primary outcome measure was change in off time from baseline to week 12.

Results

In trial 1, neither preladenant nor rasagiline was superior to placebo in reducing off time from baseline to week 12. The differences vs placebo were −0.10 hour (95% CI, −0.69 to 0.46 hour) for preladenant 2 mg twice daily, −0.20 hour (95% CI, −0.75 to 0.41 hour) for preladenant 5 mg twice daily, −0.00 hour (95% CI, −0.62 to 0.53 hour) for preladenant 10 mg twice daily, and −0.30 hour (95% CI, −0.90 to 0.26 hour) for rasagiline mesylate 1 mg/d. In trial 2, preladenant was not superior to placebo in reducing off time from baseline to week 12. The differences vs placebo were −0.20 hour (95% CI, −0.72 to 0.35 hour) for preladenant 2 mg twice daily and −0.30 hour (95% CI, −0.86 to 0.21 hour) for preladenant 5 mg twice daily. Preladenant was well tolerated, with the most common adverse event that showed an increase over placebo in both trials being constipation (6%-8% for preladenant vs 1%-3% for placebo).

Conclusions and Relevance

In these phase 3 trials, preladenant did not significantly reduce off time compared with placebo. That the active control rasagiline also failed to demonstrate a significant reduction in off time suggests that issues of study design or conduct may have affected these trials.

Trial Registration

clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01155466 and NCT01227265

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