Organophosphate insecticide exposure: A clinical consideration of chlorpyrifos regulation

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Abstract

Background and purpose:

In March 2017, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reversed course on a proposal to ban the agricultural use of the organophosphate (OP) insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF). The purpose of this article is to examine the evidence leading to this controversial decision and provide clinically applicable health promotion guidance for nurse practitioners on CPF exposure and risk reduction measures.

Methods:

Environmental Protection Agency documents on CPF regulation and corresponding research referenced within the EPA reports are reviewed. Evidence-based health promotion strategies obtained through PubMed, CINAHL, Center for Disease Control and Prevention, and National Institutes of Health sources are summarized.

Conclusions:

Available data suggest a potential association between CPF exposure and adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. Particularly vulnerable populations are pregnant women, children younger than two years, and agricultural workers. There may be genetic variability in susceptibility to environmental toxins.

Implications for practice:

Because of the extensive use of the OP CPF in agriculture and other community-based settings throughout the United States, nurse practitioners should be knowledgeable of the evidence regarding CPF exposure and be prepared to provide health promotion guidance to patients in clinical practice. Nurse practitioners should also consider their role in advocacy for healthy environments and the protection of vulnerable populations as it relates to agricultural insecticide exposure.

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